John Lyfolly [99]
Mary Smith [35128]
Andrew Lyfolly [98]
(Abt 1642-Abt 1715)


Family Links

Hester Lifolly [35005]

Andrew Lyfolly [98]

  • Born: Abt Aug 18, 1642, Burford, Oxfordshire, England
  • Christened: Aug 21, 1642, Burford Parish, England
  • Marriage: Hester Lifolly [35005] about 1662 in Oxfordshire, England
  • Died: Abt Nov 30, 1715, Burford, Oxfordshire, England about age 73
  • Buried: Dec 1, 1715, Burford Parish, England

bullet  General Notes:

Andrew is named as the father of Mark Lifely in the London City Apprenticeships Abstracts, 1693/4.

The John Lively who became an indentured servant in Barbados is still under consideration as the father of Mark Lively but is looking less like a likely candidate. What we know of John is in the below:

John Lively was convicted of a crime (unknown) in London on November 12, 1668 and was sentenced to be "reprieved" to Barbados from Newgate, a famous and very old prison in London. This may have been a part of the Monmouth rebellion and the "Bloody Assizes" trials held by Judge Jeffery in England, or it might have been a result of a fire that destroyed Newgate just prior to this time resulting in a limited supply of prisoner jail space. A "crime" in those days and times punishable by deportation could have been anything from a minor theft to non-conformity. It has been said that the average crime committed by these reprieved convicts was the theft of food.

By petition on May 1673, a fellow transported prisoner, Emanuel Jones, requested that all of these prisoners be sent to colonial Virginia. (Emmanuel Jones shows up as an active minister of faith in several churches in the early 1700's). As a result, at least some of these prisoners were sent to Virginia, more likely, all of them were transported to the colony. Just before the arrival of John Lively and Emanuel Jones on Barbados, there had been a locust plague, drought, fire, hurricanes and "excessive" rain, which together, ruined the existing sugar industry. Labor was in surplus. Virginia was in great need of this labor. Given the circumstances surrounding the Emanuel Jones petition, we believe John Lively was sent to Virginia about 1673 along with his prisoner shipmates.

The real mystery here is that John Lively has not been found in the records; not his arrival in Virginia nor his continued stay in Barbados. He vanished, perhaps by changing his name.


Bonded Passengers to America; Peter Wilson Coldham, Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1983

English Convicts in Colonial America; Peter Wilson Coldham, New Orleans, Polyanthos, 1976 Vol 2

The Complete Book of Emigrants: A Complete Listing . . .1661 - 1699; Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1990


It has been said that four and five prisoners shared a bed and when walking in a cell the sound of crunching lice and bed bugs could be heard echoing off the walls.

Newgate Prison, located in London, was probably the most notorious prison in all England. A prison has stood on the Newgate site for almost a thousand years. The first prison was nearly as old as the Tower of London and much older than the Bastille. It is first mentioned in the reign of King John and in the following reign of Henry the III, (1218), the King expressly commands the sheriffs of London to repair it, and promised to repay them from his own exchequer. This shows that the prison was under the direct control of the King at that time. The prison itself was originally above the gate or in the gatehouse.

London was anciently a walled city with four gates. It has been argued that Newgate was one of the original four, and conversely, that it was indeed a "new" gate, being the fifth to provide entry to the city. This is somewhat substantiated by the fact that in 1086 the old cathedral church of St. Paul was destroyed. In building a new cathedral, Mauritius, Bishop of London, wanted a building so large and so grand plus a cemetery and churchyard that he blocked the then great thoroughfare from Aldgate in the east to Ludgate in the west. This resulted in traffic having to make long and dangerous detours. The remedy for this was to make a new gate which allowed a route from Aldgate through West Cheape to St Paul's. It was rebuilt and modified several times, once after the great fire of London in 1666.

By the time John Lively was convicted of his crime, 1668/69, prison space at Newgate virtually non-existent ( due to the fire of London 1666 ), which is the likely reason he and others were shipped to Barbados. These ships and the circumstances surrounding them were comparable to "slave ships", as we have come to know them. Basically, the whole thing was white slavery. The local jailors in England were responsible for obtaining transportation. They would "sell" the convicts to the highest bidding ship master, or one they had reason to do business with. The ship master would either turn around and "sell" the convict to a plantation owner (selling of the indenture) or the indenture would take place prior to leaving England. In other words, a ship master was most likely an agent (employee) of a plantation owner(s) on Barbados and was only seeking bodies to transport.

The actual quality of the journey depended entirely on the ship master and how much profit was in the arrangement. Convicts were a commodity. Payment was usually per body. The less a ship master had to expend for care and feeding, the great the profit. There was, therefore, no motivation to care for the convict passenger beyond keeping them alive.

There are few records from convicts detailing their journey, however, the few available were horrific. There were no sanitary facilities, no bathing, minimum food and water and they were apparently never allowed on deck. Disease was common. Those who perished enroute were discarded overboard. These journeys usually took six weeks.

Barbados is the eastern most Caribbean island. The island, less than one million years old, was created by volcanic activity resulting from collisions of the Atlantic and Caribbean tectonic plates. There were Amerindians on Barbados for upwards of a thousand years. The first Europeans to find the island were the Portuguese enroute to Brazil who named it "Os Barbados" after the Bearded Fig trees which grew on the beaches. They frequented the island and left behind some wild pigs. These bred successfully and provided meat for the first English settlers, who arrived in 1627 and found an island which was otherwise uninhabited. It is not clear why the Amerindians abandoned the island, although several theories exist. King Charles I gave the Earl of Carlisle permission to colonize the island and it was his appointed Governor, Henry Hawley, who in 1639 founded the House of Assembly. Within a few years, there were upwards of 40,000 white settlers, mostly small farmers, and equivalent in number to about 1% of the total population of England at this period. After the "sugar revolt" of the 1650's most of the white population left. For the rest of the colonial period sugar was king, and the island was dominated by a small group of whites who owned the estates, "The Plantocracy". The majority of the population today is descended from African slaves who were brought in to work on the plantations; but there is a substantial mixed race population, and there has always been a small number of poor whites, particularly in the east part of the island. Many of these are descended from the 100's of prisoners transported after the failed Monmouth rebellion and Judge Jeffery's "Bloody Assizes".

Many natural disasters occurred on the late 1600's, such as the locust plague of 1663, the Bridgetown fire and a major hurricane in 1667. Drought in 1668 ruined some planters and excessive rain in 1669 added to many financial problems.

Sometime in September 1605 two groups of English merchants petitioned King James I for a license to colonize Virginia. The entire east coast of the present day United States was called Virginia then. Virginia was a very large area.

On April 10, 1606, the same King James I who appointed Edward Lively as one of the translators of the King James bible, granted, by charter a territory 200 miles wide between latitudes 34 and 45 N to two companies, usually called the London and Plymouth companies. By this charter, the London Company could colonize between latitude 34 and 41 and the Plymouth between 38 and 45, provided the colonies were 100 miles apart. The land was held to be free and common socage, and the settlers and their children were "forever to enjoy all liberties, franchises, and immunities enjoyed by Englishmen in England". The charter also said the two companies formed by this charter had the right to "to dig, mine, and search for all manner of mines of gold, silver and copper." So, in 1606 it all began with the ships Susan Constant, Discovery and Godspeed and several hundred settlers who reached Chesapeake Bay in 1607 and founded Jamestown.

Between 1609 and 1732 the English Crown chartered no less than fourteen overlapping land grants covering all of the eastern United States of today, creating great confusion on issues of private landownership. Yet, by 1630 there were no less than thirty English settlements, mostly perceived by landowners as their small fiefdoms.

All this preceded the four great migrations between 1629 and 1750. The first being the exodus of the English Puritans, 1629-40; the second brought to Virginia a culture characterized by scattered settlements, extreme hierarchies of rank and strong oligarchies, 1642-75; the third wave from 1675-1715 brought another culture from England's North Midlands to the Delaware Valley founded on a Christian idea of spiritual equality (Quakers); the fourth genearally considered to be between 1717 and 1775 came to the backcountry of the colonies and generally came from the Scottish lowlands, the north of Ireland and England. Each of these migrations brought with them very different cultural leanings which, to some extent, still exists today.

The families covered in this genealogy study were for the most part, but not all, a part of the fourth migration and were of Scot-Irish origins.


Andrew married Hester Lifolly [35005], daughter of Richard Lifolly [100] and Margaret Unknown [35119], about 1662 in Oxfordshire, England. (Hester Lifolly [35005] was born about Dec 15, 1644 in Burford Parish, Oxfordshire, England, christened on Dec 17, 1644 in Burford Parish, England, died about May 24, 1704 in Burford Parish, Oxfordshire, England and was buried on May 26, 1704 in Burford Parish, England.)

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